BC Wolf Howl Sounds Over Toronto Gangland

(Featured image obtained from National Post – Link can be found in article “Sources”; Image displays former Independent Soldier and Wolf Pack member Sukhvir Deo at a Toronto Raptors playoff game before his 2016 murder; he was subsequently ejected from the game for his behaviour.)

 

Gunmen wait patiently in the back of their luxury sport utility vehicle, the black paint and deep tint reflecting the light from the oval overhead street lamps that illuminate the road in little circular spotlights evenly spaced along the asphalt. The tones and rhythmic beats, usually found to be emanating outrageously from the speakers, seem to resonate louder when silent, producing an eerie quiet that feels much more darkly conspicuous than when the oft-playing music rattles the panes of windows the vehicle passes daily. There’s is a world of action – fast-paced, dangerous, and immediate in its outcomes – and for this reason their stasis in the midst of, or prior to, some decisive moment of violent significance rings louder than any explosion, nefarious or otherwise. The SUV purrs quietly on a sleepy side street, the Coast Mountains stretching high in its rear view mirror behind the three story businesses that line the street, reaching up and then descending before climbing again as the Cascade Range far in the horizon. Bisecting this harshly beautiful country the Fraser River tumbles and falls to the ocean, carving an ancient valley throughout which small communities have grown into cities of manicured lawns and identical although often poorly built houses, fashioned as if formed by some cheap, imitation ‘cookie cutter.’ While for many this image epitomizes the heartland of Canadian middle class living, the gunmen and their apparent luxury lifestyles have also become defining aspects of this otherwise idyllic region. The United Nations (gang), Hells Angels, the Red Scorpions, the Gisby Group, the Dhak-Duhre organization, and Independent Soldiers have all called this area along the Transcanada Highway in the heart of the Fraser River Valley home. Oblivious to their surroundings, the beauty or the innocents, the SUV peels into action. The muzzles of an AR-15 and tactical 12-gauge shotgun emerge from the lowered windows, spraying death and mayhem onto the street and into the warm bodies of their supposed enemies. In communities throughout the Lower Mainland of BC such scenes have become far too common.

Mafia killings have always enjoyed notoriety, with the perpetrators presented as loud and abrasive, committing murder in an equally obvious fashion so as to impart messages of intimidation and power. In reality, mob killings, even those committed during the height of the Chicago gangland era and the supposed carnage meted out during the Castellamarese War of the beginning of the 1930s were often done surreptitiously. The Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre of 1929, for all of its publicity and supposed seminal character, was done behind closed doors away from public eyes, the victims not being discovered until well after those carrying out the heinous crime had fled the scene. Mob murders are more often than not committed by people the victims know, intimately enough to get them to drop their guard and generally while in the midst of some oft-repeated or menial task that further numbs the target to the impending danger they are in. The killers in the above-mentioned SUV and throughout this story do not behave in this fashion. While all murders in organized crime can be linked back to money, power, and survival, some reek of betrayal and secrecy while others prove odious for their brashness and the sheer ambivalence displayed at the danger they cause to those involved, or those simply in the wrong place at the wrong time.

If the traditional mob practices limited warfare or violence based on the principle of surgical strikes, the BC gangsters discussed above embody the idea of bellum romanum (‘war the way the Romans do it,’ also known as total war – no prisoners, no mitigation). They exist in the short game, leaving the long con to those few who survive the carnage or those gangsters smart and lucky enough to temper their responses and remove themselves from the public eye. The Wolfpack are those survivors, forged in BC’s violent mid-tier gang culture and now attempting to force their way into a world in which they have had little practice enduring, relying instead on their momentum to explode onto the scene, as if some mighty meteor on its way to destruction – burning hot and violent before its own inevitable demise. The world they have survived is the pervasive gang warfare of the Vancouver metropolitan area, once rampant and now far less intense, though the City still remains the unabashed heroin wholesale hub for North America. The world they have sought to burst into is Canada’s largest domestic consumer market for illegal drugs and one whose gangland currently suffers from a lack of imposed hegemonic structure and order – southern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).

For approximately three years gangsters fresh from the conflicts in southern BC have begun a migration to Ontario, searching for new markets for their illegal wares and novel pipelines to establish greater areas of influence and power. Their transition has not been smooth or necessarily successful, but they have come at an auspicious time for Ontario’s vibrant underworld, determined to carve out space in an area that has been traditionally dominated by the Calabrian branch of traditional organized crime – the seven ‘Ndrangheta clans that call Toronto home – and the one-percenter biker gangs they sometimes employ. In this latest article PanAmerican Crime will delve into the Wolfpack’s campaign and explore their successes, challenges and the general efficacy of their strategy before commenting on their chances of establishing a lasting presence. More importantly, PanAm will endeavor to answer why they have attempted to maneuver themselves into the Ontario illicit marketplace and who is supporting this campaign. As was witnessed at the beginning of the campaign to unseat the Rizzuto hegemony, the real answer as to when this violence will stop and what the penultimate goal of these perpetrators is can only truly be ascertained by figuring out the support structure for these gangsters and the motivations for this support. As the initial body-blows were landed in that clash, certain media outlets and reputed “experts” expounded the demise of the Rizzuto Crime Family, stating that it was being replaced by a “new breed” of gangsters such as Ducarme Joseph – the prime suspect in Nick Rizzuto Jr.’s 2009 murder before being assassinated himself in 2014. Yet, after surviving two separate internal wars (one of which is ongoing), the Rizzuto family and the Rizzuto Crime Family both remain firmly entrenched in the Montreal underworld.

The refrain of ‘more important than the what is the why’ is generally misused but, in the case of the Wolfpack’s migration to the GTA, answering this query sets the stage for this story, allowing observers to understand what is going on and when it can be expected to stop. Rather than operating as a new super gang or organized crime syndicate, the belief of which has sparked recent public fears, the Wolfpack began as an alliance of disparate criminal groups that operated throughout the Fraser River Valley and the metropolitan Vancouver area. Generally, the alliance formed to establish peaceful relations in order to facilitate market access for the various organizations; it was also done to maintain peace between the groups given the constant paroxysms of gunplay between the various mid-tier drug trafficking organizations (DTO) and transnational criminal organizations (TCO) that call Vancouver and its environs home. But while all of those points are accurate, in reality, everything changed on the afternoon of August 11, 2011 in the parking lot of a resort casino in Kelowna, BC when Jonathan Bacon, who behaved if not existed as the titular head of the Red Scorpions DTO, was murdered at the hands of gunmen allied or beholden to the Dhak-Duhre DTO that had become a major competitor to the regional hegemony that was slowly being exercised by the Red Scorpions and their new allies in the Hells Angels (HA). His death, along the with shooting and wounding of Independent Soldier (IA) James Riach as well as prominent HA member and Haney, BC Chapter president Larry Amero and Amero’s niece (who was left a paraplegic), all of whom were in the car with Bacon, galvanized the three criminal organizations to band together under the moniker “Wolfpack” to seek revenge and achieve their economic ends.

After years of intense violence on the streets, southern BC’s underworld had experienced relative tranquility in the months leading up to Jonathan Bacon’s demise. The Dhak-Duhre group, so named after the two Indo-Canadian families whose members formed the original core of the DTO, had reportedly been expanding their operations and market reach in the years leading up to Bacon’s murder, especially in the region of the Bacon family’s hometown of Abbotsford, BC. Both groups, but most especially the Red Scorpions, had been enjoying a relatively unparalleled run of success in the aftermath of the collapse of the United Nations gang – another mid-tier DTO that had, at one time, been the premier trafficking organization in the lower mainland of BC. Before the arrest and lengthy incarceration in the United States of its founder, Clayton Roueche, in 2010 for drug trafficking, the UN’s reach had grown long indeed. Moving serious quantities of ecstasy and marijuana south to California in helicopters and float planes in exchange for cocaine from Mexico, Roueche and his underlings had come to be seen as “the farm team” for BC’s Hells Angels chapters. The HA in BC have a long history of criminal success and violence, and by the end of the first decade of the 21st Century, given the murder and incarceration of many top echelon UN members as well as Roueche himself, their favour had fallen onto the Red Scorpions and their burgeoning hold over the region’s narcotics trade. Following Roueche’s arrest and the murder of one of his prominent Abbotsford lieutenants, Duane Meyer, in 2010 the Red Scorpions began to complete their takeover of the UN’s sizeable rackets. This takeover was not seamless, with UN gangster and Roueche confidant, Dan Russell, reportedly putting contracts out on the lives of the three Bacon brothers themselves. While none of the brothers were killed as a result of this conflict, Jonathan Bacon was the victim of an assassination attempt during this period, with around a dozen shell casings found at the scene of the attempted murder, which took place on his parents’ Abbotsford driveway. In spite of incidents of violence like these, by the end of 2010 the Red Scorpions found themselves in control of BC’s mid-tier trafficking world.

The scope of the revenge exacted upon the Dhak-Duhre group in the aftermath of Bacon’s murder is not the focus of this piece (a more complete synopsis of this period and what’s transpired can be found here) but understanding the foundational loyalties involved provides a starting place from which the public can understand the migration of the Wolfpack to Ontario. Simply put, after they had done away with their enemies in the UN and later Dhak-Duhre group, the HA and its subservient organizations were in control of their surroundings, or about as in control as is possible given the BC underworld’s undulating level of stability and transient loyalties. The comparably sharp downturn in targeted shootings in the lower mainland of BC over the past several years seems to support this thesis – down to just a few a year in 2016 from as high as several dozen per year in the period prior to the 12 months encompassing both Roueche’s arrest and Bacon’s death.

The second foundational concept that influenced the movements of the Wolfpack and enabled their move eastwards was the ongoing chaos in the Quebec underworld – a place even more devious and violent than the recent spate of killings has made Vancouver over the past decade. A more complete summary of the internecine mob violence in Quebec and Montreal, specifically, has been outlined in great detail by PanAm Crime previously, and will be the subject of further PanAm Crime pieces in the future. However, the point that needs to be understood in order to make sense of this story is, at its essence, political in nature. Elements of the Wolfpack examined the situation in Ontario in the wake of 2013 and found the competition for mid-tier DTOs lacking. Beginning in 2009, ‘Ndrangheta crime families in the Toronto area began to throw their support behind an uprising of rebel capos in the Montreal crime family overseen by boss Vito Rizzuto. These crews were run by Calabrian captains Giuseppe (Joe) Di Maulo and Giuseppe (the Ponytail) De Vito – both of whom were murdered for their offenses against the ruling regime in Montreal (the Ponytail was found poisoned in his cell although his death has not been officially deemed a homicide) – as well as Raynald Desjardins. Despite his Quebecois heritage, Desjardins was a formally inducted member of the Montreal borgata, supervising his own crew of made heavy hitters until his arrest for the murder of Salvatore (Baby Bambino) Montagna – the former head of the Bonanno Crime Family in New York – who had supported the rebellion until trying to usurp the leadership of the group for himself.

With the release of storied don Vito Rizzuto from American prison in 2013 and the subsequent death or arrest of the rebels’ leadership cabal the uprising floundered and collapsed. The revenge exacted by Vito and the remaining loyal crews of the Rizzuto Crime Family would be harsh given the number of murders committed during the insurrection, which included Vito’s son, father and other close friends and family. As Rizzuto’s counterattack got underway the Calabrian groups in Toronto became rightly fearful given their support of the rebels and the murder of one of their top hitmen – Salvatore (Young Gun Sam) Calautti, who was assassinated in June, 2013 for his supposed role in the murder of Vito’s father Nicolo Rizzuto. They therefore moved quickly to come to peaceful terms with Rizzuto and the Montreal Sicilians. But, despite their attempt to return to business as usual, there was no going back to the status-quo. As with any political competition, be it on the 12th Century Eurasian steppe or modern municipal political campaign, the loser is almost always challenged in the wake of their defeat. Such challenges can manifest themselves from internal sources or come from outside of the organization in question, or, in the case of extremely troubled leaders, from both. Either way, the Calabrian families, once considered untouchable by mid-tier DTOs, came to be considered weak following the Rizzuto Crime Family’s revenge campaign and, like vultures, the BC groups moved in, attempting to fill the supposed void.

Evidence of the chaos permeating the Ontario underworld continues to swirl in the public’s consciousness, although perhaps the correlation with the Montreal and BC conflicts remains out of view. The retraction of the Rizzuto organization’s influence in Ontario is perhaps best seen in the feud between elements of the London HA chapter, which has led to several shootings and bombings across the Province, including the shooting of Paris Christoforou and Mark Peretz on August 4th, 2017. The dispute between HA elements in London is rumoured to be over the proceeds of illegal online gambling operations in that city, with the revenues of one such scheme reportedly being skimmed and reinvested by certain HA members at the expense of others, leading to violent reprisals. Illegal online gambling was once the sole purview of Rizzuto and his organization but with the dismantlement of the online Platinum Sports Book by law enforcement as well as the organization’s concurrent legal and internal troubles the Rizzuto group was no longer able to enforce its once omnipotent will over other mid-tier groups, like the HA; a situation redolent of the current crisis afflicting the ‘Ndrangheta ‘Ndrine in Toronto.

The culmination of the Wolfpack’s back story leads us to the ‘what.’ Who are the Wolfpack and why should anyone outside of the underworld care? According to Peter Edwards of the Toronto Star, the Wolfpack is “a rapidly evolving group of organized crime disrupters. Their members don’t have blood or ethnic ties, or a code of conduct or a rigid hierarchy. They’re generally young and tech savvy. They have gold pendants with a wolf’s head to demonstrate membership.” The Wolfpack may have utilized the moniker in an effort to present a united front and overcome challenges by the Dhak-Duhres, among others, yet this has led to several misconceptions, the exploration of which will do much to reveal their true nature.

The first misconception is that the Wolfpack is some new highly organized, rigidly hierarchical super organization that has invaded Ontario en masse. Nothing could be farther from the truth. What they likely are, in essence, is a loose alliance of aligning interests acting in concert to achieve a greater market share of the Ontario drug business. Yes, they may be friends and business partners but they are fundamentally, at their core, simply individuals using whatever is at their disposal to achieve their ends. This fact does not mean that they are not capable of acting as a group or pursuing joint interests but rather that, if the conflict in Ontario subsides, they will not remain as a uniform organization but will likely exist as myriad independent drug dealers. This reality is most especially true if the Wolfpack has obtained alliances in Ontario, who are likely the ones who helped tempt the BC gangsters to leave their home province and engage with the weakened ‘Ndrangheta groups. As even a cursory examination of the history of alliances based on conflict reveals, such arrangements never stand the test of time.

The second misconception is that the Wolfpack’s drug dealing ventures are of paramount concern to both the Calabrian groups and the public in terms of safety. Again, this idea is misleading in its portrayal of the group and its presence on the streets of GTA. Yes, drug dealing by the group’s members has a negative effect on society, but as the recent cocaine seizure in the GTA demonstrates – in August, 2017 Ontario Provincial Police conducted the largest illegal drug seizure in Ontario’s history, arresting three men with connections to Mexican cartels in possession of 1,062kg of pure cocaine with a reported street value of $250 million – there are many such groups active in Ontario. The threat the Wolfpack demonstrates is its desire and intention of upending the structure of organized crime in Ontario. Whereas the Province had the Mafia and other international groups (ex. Mexican cartels or Chinese triad groups) operating at the top of the organized criminal hierarchy, the Wolfpack represents a West Coast operational style, which does away with certain traditional top groups with international reach and replaces it with many mid-tier players – as occurred in Vancouver cocaine trade over the past 20 years with incredibly violent results. Ontario’s underworld has always had the mafia at its centre, followed by the biker gangs and later HA. Slightly lower on the criminal totem pole are the mid-tier DTOs and more organized street gangs. The danger the Wolfpack poses is their intention to do away with this organizational paradigm, allowing its members to usurp the role of the top Ontario groups by establishing their own pipeline of drugs through BC to Ontario, thereby leading to chaos and, ultimately, violence.

The final misunderstanding regarding the Wolfpack is that is has travelled in its entirety to the GTA. This does not suppose that every member travelled from BC, but that the core elements of the alliance have come as well. To state it plainly, HA and Red Scorpions members from BC have not packed up shop and hopped on the train to set up operations in Hogtown. This fact also applies to the Independent Soldiers group. Although Independent Soldiers gang members have undoubtedly arrived as members of the Ontario Wolfpack looking to sell their illicit wares in this province, they have not done so at the behest of the gang’s leadership echelon in BC or as part of some policy goal defined by that same group; rather, they came of their own volition, often at the encouragement of criminal family members and friends already based in Ontario, for the purposes of making money in the largest consumer drug market north of the American border. These individuals have challenged the hegemony of the Calabrian groups by stealing away top clientele and access points for the distribution of narcotics – meaning the street gangs and mid-tier DTOs that sell the product to the users and bottom-rung distributors. In spite of the onslaught against them, the Calabrians continue to strive to maintain these contacts in order to ensure the sale of their merchandise and superior position in the underworld.

What would drastically increase how interesting this story is if HA soldiers from BC or Quebec arrived in Ontario to challenge the Calabrians as a part of the Wolfpack alliance that was formerly forged in BC or because of their historic alliance with the Rizzuto Crime Family. The HA in Quebec and BC developed from different strains of the HA in the United States and therefore it is theoretically conceivable that BC HA members could show up in Ontario as part of the Wolfpack without the knowledge of the Quebec chapters, but this is highly unlikely. Yet, while the HA in Quebec have a longstanding and ongoing relationship with the Montreal Rizzutos and may support their campaign of revenge against the Calabrians, it is also unlikely that HA members would come to Ontario where the majority of the one-percenter biker world already patched-over to the HA in the early 2000s. Ontario has become a fiefdom of the Quebec HA and their paramount representative and former national president Walter (Nurget) Stadnick, making the dispatching of HA soldiers from Quebec to Ontario somewhat redundant. It is true that the HA may support the operations of their allies in the Wolfpack in order to interfere with the enemies (the Calabrians) of their allies (the Rizzutos in Montreal) but, given their strength in Ontario, they would not need to bring in HA members from out of province to accomplish this. The HA knows rightly that going to war with the Calabrians directly in Ontario would cost both groups a tremendous amount of blood and wealth, as well as make them public enemy number one for very little in return when compared to the necessary investment any such war would require.

What is known then, once all of these misunderstandings and suppositions are cleared up, is that a group of loosely aligned, self-interested gangsters from BC is making a play at usurping the operating paradigm established and run by the seven or so Calabrian ‘Ndrangheta groups that call Toronto home. This feud reportedly involves the Calabrian clans at the highest levels in the GTA, specifically the family run by Cosimo “The Quail” Comisso, who is the supposed one-time head of the Camera di Controllo – the ruling board of the ‘Ndrangheta in Ontario that enacts policy set by the top clan bosses in Calabria and oversees what has come to be known, colloquially, in Toronto as the Siderno Group, which is comprised of the nine known ‘Ndrangheta clans in Ontario. Despite the defeat of their supporters in Montreal, these Calabrian groups did not burn an overwhelming amount of their economic leverage or resources, in terms of their total capacities, in their support for the Montreal rebels. They remain, to this day, international drug dealers with ready connections in Europe and South America, as well as with clear sources of manpower to violently support their aims and enforce their control over their longstanding rackets.

The current body count in the campaign between the Wolfpack and Siderno Group remains unknown, but several shootings, bombings, and acts of arson have been attributed to it. Again, Peter Edwards of the Toronto Star provides an excellent list of the combatants rumoured to have been assaulted as part of this conflict. Although not exhaustive, the violence demonstrated here illuminates the intensity of the struggle and those listed provide an excellent example of the scope of the operations of the Siderno group and the familial and economic relationships that have helped pull many Wolfpack members to the GTA.

Timeline:

– June 7, 2016 – Sukhvir Deo is shot and killed at the intersection of Yonge St. and Eglinton Ave.. Deo lived in a luxury Oakville home after moving from BC where he was a reputed member of the Independent Soldiers. Both his father and brother are career criminals, with his father specifically wanted in connection to an international drug smuggling operation.

– 2017 – Two prominent mobsters leave Toronto area after receiving warnings from police – one a relative of Comisso, the other related to the infamous Cuntrera family, who are founding members of the infamous Caruana-Cuntrera mafia clan. Two other mobsters were warned by authorities but declined to leave.

– January 30, 2017 – Anastasios Leventis, of Montreal, is shot and killed in the middle of downtown Toronto near Adelaide St. E. and George St. While it is unclear what group Leventis was affiliated with, his death, after showing up on the scene, indicates that he was stepping on someone’s proverbial toes. The intriguing question is whether or not he was working for the Rizzuto Crime Family and if he had been tasked with undermining the Calabrian’s share of the wholesale drug market in the GTA. If so, the Wolfpack should likely be considered an elaborately crafted element of the revenge being exacted by the Montreal Crime Family on the Toronto ‘Ndrangheta clans.

– March 31, 2017 – Domenic Triumbari, 58, of Woodbridge, a known gangster and relative of Commisso, was shot dead on outside of a social club and a banquet hall on Regina Road in Vaughan.

– May 2, 2017 – Angelo Musitano (39), scion of the Musitano clan in Hamilton, is shot and murdered. Since then his brother Pat’s house has also been the scene a shooting, although no one was reportedly injured.

– June 29, 2017 – A massive explosion is reported early in the morning that knocked a wall out of the Caffé Corretto on Winges Rd. near the interchange of Highways 400 and 7, north of Toronto. The business had been associated with illegal gambling and gaming machines in the past.

– According to statements made by local police, more assassinations are imminent and investigators fear that the violence will spread.

 

Given the intelligence required to mount this campaign by gangsters from across the country, it should be assumed that some form of informational or monetary support is being provided to the Wolfpack by enemies of the Siderno Group. And, it is the nature of this support that will determine their overall success or failure in their campaign against the Calabrians. If this support is coming directly from mob crews in Montreal or the Rizzuto leadership itself, as payback for the support the Calabrians showed for the Rizzutos’ rebels years prior, the Wolfpack’s campaign may have the juice to be long indeed. But, given the ongoing conflict between factions within the Montreal Crime Family at this time (see more about the Arcadi rebels here) as well as the serious legal troubles of its ruling administration, such overt support for the transplanted BC gangsters is unlikely. What is likely is that some group, conceivably at the behest of the Rizzutos, is providing enough information in order so that the Wolfpack does enough damage to the Calabrians to disguise the movements of the supporting group. Perhaps the HA or its subordinate clubs could be attempting this, for the reasons listed previously? It is even possible (but very unlikely) that elements of the Toronto ‘Ndrangheta, dissatisfied with the current leadership after their failure in Montreal or for other unknown reasons may be supporting the insurgency to support their own financial or leadership ambitions. If no support was forthcoming how could this campaign have even been launched, without actionable knowledge of where the Calabrians’ rackets and points of distribution are located? At the very least, the Wolfpack is being supported by or has incorporated local drug dealers (perhaps friends or family) into their group, and it is from these home-grown Toronto elements that intelligence on the locations and behaviours of the Calabrians is being generated. If this is the case, those elements will likely soon find themselves in the cross-hairs of the Calabrians’ revenge.

If the Wolfpack is acting autonomously, and there is no overt evidence to support that this is not the case, their chances of long-term success are limited. Simply put: without serious support the Wolfpack does not have the money, connections, or reliable manpower to overcome the Calabrian clans in their established home base. Their hope of victory is derived from the Calabrians’ apparent disorganization and disunity following their loss in Montreal in 2013 and their consequential inability to mount a united or concerted front against the insurgents at this time. All of the recent successes achieved by the Wolfpack are likely due to the surprise of their attack and the fact that very few of its members have known addresses or established rackets and businesses that can be targeted by the Calabrians in retaliation. But this initiative will fade. The longer the Wolfpack members operate in Ontario the more vulnerable they become through the connections and relationships they must necessarily establish to achieve their paramount goal of taking over a large share of the GTA’s wholesale narcotics business. Once these locations, rackets and networks are established and known on the street, the ‘Ndrangheta will catch its breath and these will be targeted.

Even in their weakened state the Toronto clans have the muscle to fight off invaders, regardless of the support being offered. This fact does not guarantee the Calabrians victory, but it does mean that until internal dissention or another powerful interfering actor manifests itself observers should be incredibly hesitant to view this conflict as some death knell for the Calabrian clans. The real determining question remains: who is supporting the Wolfpack and, if it is the Rizzuto Crime Family or their proxies in Ontario, what is their ultimate goal or vision of success? In the end, only time will tell; but in the meantime observers should expect the violence to continue.

 

By: Scott Paulseth

 

Note: Stories and research, such as what is presented on PanAmerican Crime, would not be possible without the timely and responsible reporting by journalists such as Peter Edwards (Toronto Star) and Adrian Humphreys (National Post). While we continue to be hard on the media, traditional and otherwise, in many of our stories, we would like to acknowledge the incredible job many journalists do in illuminating the world in which we live. They educate citizens on the issues affecting them and help make sense of complex matters that are often beyond the ability of time-strapped citizens to absorb. The so-called “death” (ongoing decapacitization) of traditional media outlets is a major blow to any democratic society and its associated freedoms, as well as the ability of human beings to understand and function in such a complex and dynamic world. All of us depend on our journalists to, at the very least, introduce us to the stories we as citizens need to hear; and it is for this, and all of the hard work they do, that we at PanAm Crime would like to thank them.

 

 

Sources:

Edwards, Peter, “Former Hells Angels Enforcer Survives Sherway Gardens Murder Bid,” Toronto Star, August 20, 2017, https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/08/20/former-hells-angels-enforcer-survives-sherway-gardens-murder-bid.html

Edwards, Peter and Jennifer Pagliaro, “Slaying of hitman and his friend has expert wondering if Montreal’s Mafia war is coming to Toronto,” Toronto Star, July 13, 2013, https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2013/07/13/slaying_of_hitman_and_his_friend_has_expert_wondering_if_montreals_mafia_war_is_coming_to_toronto.html

Edwards, Peter, “Shootings, explosions, killings and the bloody fight to be ‘the next boss’ after mobster Vito Rizzuto’s death,” Toronto Star, July 30th, 2017, https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/07/30/shootings-explosions-killings-and-the-bloody-fight-to-be-the-next-boss-after-mobster-vito-rizzutos-death.html

Kwong, Evelyn, “One dead in shooting near George Brown College,” Toronto Star, January 30, 2017, https://www.thestar.com/news/crime/2017/01/30/man-shot-near-st-lawrence-market.html

Le, Julia, “Toronto Victim Lived in Oakville Luxury Home,” Hamilton Spectator, June 9, 2016, https://www.thespec.com/news-story/6714895-toronto-shooting-victim-lived-in-oakville-luxury-home/

Hunter, Brad, “Biggest Dope Bust Links to Mexican Cartels,” Toronto Sun, August 28, 2017, http://www.torontosun.com/2017/08/28/gta-trio-charged-in-largest-drug-bust-in-opp-history

Bolan, Kim, “BC Woman Paralyzed in Shooting of Gangster Jonathan Bacon Sues Accused Gunmen,” Vancouver Sun, August 17, 2013, http://www.vancouversun.com/news/woman+paralyzed+shooting+gangster+jonathan+bacon+sues+accused+gunmen/8799896/story.html

“Three Accused in Murder of Jonathan Bacon Plead Not Guilty,” CBC News, May 29, 2017, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/bacon-not-guilty-1.4137229

Bolan, Kim, “Cracks in UN Gang Appeared Long Before Leader Clay Roueche’s Arrest,” The Vancouver Sun, http://www.thestarphoenix.com/news/cracks+gang+appeared+long+before+leader+clay+roueche+arrest/2345162/story.html

“Former Gangster Gunned Down in Toronto Had Been Part of BC’s Wolf Pack Gang Alliance,” National Post, http://nationalpost.com/news/toronto/former-vancouver-gangster-gunned-down-in-toronto-had-been-involved-in-b-c-s-wolf-pack-gang-alliance

 

 

 

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